After describing customary water rights in selected African countries and the water allocation systems introduced by colonial rulers, and their evolution, this article highlights both the injustices that the colonial legacy of permit systems creates for peasants and the administrative overloads that these systems currently

Although the International Law Association (ILA) was established in 1873, it only turned its attention to internationally shared water resources in 1954, when its study of the applicable principles and rules of international law thereon began. The first ILA committee assigned to this task was the